John H. E. Fried Papers, 1911-1990
- The John H. E. Fried Papers consist of his professional correspondence, copies of his published and unpublished writings (manuscripts, typescripts, reprints and books), texts of numerous speeches and lectures (published and unpublished), personal documents, teaching materials, as well as Fried's research collections on topics relating to global human rights problems and remedies.
- 40 cubic ft.
- English , German .
- Preferred citation:
- Preferred citation for this material is as follows: and Identification of specific item, series, box, folder, John H. E. Fried Papers 1911-1990 (GER-014). M. E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, University at Albany, State University of New York (hereafter referred to as the Fried Papers).
Access and Use
- Conditions Governing Access:
Access to this record group is unrestricted.
The researcher assumes full responsibility for conforming with the laws of copyright. Whenever possible, the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives will provide information about copyright owners and other restrictions, but the legal determination ultimately rests with the researcher. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be discussed with the Head of Special Collections and Archives.
- Scope and Content:
The John H. E. Fried Papers consist of 40 cubic feet of materials. The collection includes his professional correspondence, copies of his published and unpublished writings (manuscripts, typescripts, reprints and books), texts of numerous speeches and lectures (published and unpublished), personal documents, teaching materials, as well as Fried's research collections on topics relating to global human rights problems and remedies. His work in this area spanned more than four decades, from his service as Consultant to the Nuremberg judges through his later membership on the Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy, and includes his time at the International Labour Organization in Montreal, Canada, as well as his affiliations with the United Nations, working as a legal consultant to the governments of Somalia and Nepal. Fried's correspondence includes: professional correspondence concerning publications, lectures, and professional organizations; correspondence with other legal scholars, including Leo Gross, Harold D. Lasswell, Hans Kelsen, Quincy Wright; correspondence with statesmen (Wallace McClure, State Dept.), political figures (Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, Henry Kissinger), and notable individuals, including physicist Viktor Weisskopf, writer Erich von Kahler, social scientists Arvid Brodersen and Erich Fromm, scholar Léon Poliakov, and former Nuremberg judges, including the last surviving trial judge, Judge WilliamWilkins.
- Biographical / Historical:
John H. E. Fried (1905-1990), lawyer, professor and human rights activist, came to the United States in 1938 from Vienna, Austria shortly after its annexation by Hitler. Before immigrating to the United States, Fried, who received his Doctor of Law and Political Science from the University of Vienna in 1930, was a member of the Vienna Bar and also served a five-year term as panel member of the Vienna Labor Relations Court.
Upon his arrival in New York in the summer of 1938, Fried joined the Institute for Social Research at Columbia University. During the next few years, he wrote three highly acclaimed books. These include The Guilt of the German Army, 1942; The Significance of Democracy: Constitutional Developments and Labor Relations in Austria, 1944; and The Exploitation of Foreign Labor by Germany, 1945. He obtained a Ph.D. in Public Law and Government from Columbia University, held posts as research associate at Columbia University and the New School for Social Research, taught at City College and the Extension Department of Columbia, and became a senior official of the international secretariat of the International Labor Organization (I.L.O.), located in Montreal, Canada.
In January of 1947, the U.S. War Department requested Fried's services for a three-month survey of certain aspects of the law of war, and to serve as consultant to the U.S. Secretary of War, assigned to the U.S. War Crimes Tribunals in Nuremberg, Germany. In March 1947, Fried was asked to remain in Nuremberg as special legal consultant to the U.S. judges at the trials. He stayed to advise on questions relating to all aspects of the law of war and war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes against peace, and many other international law questions. After the trials ended in spring 1949, Fried, by a decision of all presiding judges, was made their representative for the preparation of the official U.S. government publication of these trials. He was transferred to the Judge Advocate General's Office, Department of the Army, The Pentagon, where he worked until the end of 1950. The proceedings of the 12 trials were published in 14 volumes. Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950-1953), with the introduction to each of the 12 cases stating: "John H. E. Fried, Special Legal Consultant to the Tribunals, reviewed and approved the selection and arrangement of the material as the designated representative of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals."
Over the next three decades, Fried held academic positions at the City College of New York, Columbia University, Pittsburgh University, the New School for Social Research (N.Y.), and from 1968 until his retirement as professor of Political Science at the Lehman College, Graduate Faculty of the City University of New York. He continued to serve the international community, working for the United Nations in various capacities. He worked as legal officer and program officer of the Technical Assistance Administration of the U.N., as legal advisor (on international law) to the Government of Nepal, and lastly as U.N. Non-Governmental Organization Representative of the Foundation for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court.
In addition to his book publications, Fried presented numerous lectures and papers at universities, national and international conferences. Seven articles were selected from the John H.E. Fried Papers and published in 1994 as Toward a Right to Peace. Selected Papers of John H. E. Fried. With a foreword by Roger S. Clark (Northampton, MA: Aletheia Press, c. 1994). Other collections of materials about John H. E. Fried are located at the Leo Baeck Institute (N.Y.) and the Simon Wiesenthal Center of the Yeshiva University of Los Angeles.
He died on 18 December 1990.
1905 Born 12 November, Vienna, Austria 1924-1929 Educated at Univ.of Vienna, Dept.of Law and Political Science 1930 Dr. of Law and Political Science, Vienna Univ. 1938 summer arrival in the U.S. 1938-1940 Research Associate, Inst. of Social Research, Columbia Univ. 1940-1942 Research Associate, New School for Social Research, N.Y.C. 1942-1943 Instructor, Dept. of Political Science, City College 1944 January becomes U.S. citizen 1944-1946 Senior member of the Secretariat, International Labor Office, Montreal 1946-1949 Special Legal Consultant to the Judges, U.S. War Crimes Tribunals, Nuremburg, U.S. Zone of Germany 1949-1950 (part-time) Expert, Div.of Human Rts., U.N., N.Y.C. and Expert, Judge Advocate General's Office, U.S. Dept. of the Army, Washington, D.C. 1949-1950 Instructor, Dept.of Political Science, City College, CUNY 1951-1954 Legal Officer and Program Officer, Technical Assistance Administration, U.N., N.Y.C. 1955-1963 (part-time) Member of the Faculty, New School for Social Research, N.Y.C. 1954-1963 (part-time) Adjunct Professor of Political Science, N.Y.Univ. 1963-1968 (interrupted by assignment to Nepal-see below) Adjunct Professor of Political Science, City College, CUNY 1964-1966 United Nations Expert on International Law, assigned to the Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal 1966-1970 Legal Consultant to the Somalia delegation at the U.N. 1968-1976 Professor of Political Science, Lehman College, and Graduate Faculty, City University of New York. 18 December 1990 Died
- Acquisition information:
The bulk of the materials in the collection were donated by John H. E. Fried in February 1988. Additional materials were added to the collection after Fried's death in 1990 by his widow, Nancy Buckley Fried.
The collection is organized as follows:
Subseries 1: Publications by John H. E. Fried, 1929-1990 Subseries 2: Speeches, 1931-1989 Subseries 3: Conferences, 1944-1990 Subseries 4: Time Magazine/Fortune, 1943-1944 Subseries 5: International Labour Office, Montreal, Canada, 1942-1954 Subseries 6: Yivo Institute Regesta Diplomatica Research Project, 1955-1963 Subseries 7: Brookings Institution Study, 1959-1963 Subseries 8: Nuremberg book project, ca. 1967-1975 Subseries 9: Manuscripts, 1929-1986 Subseries 10: Notes on various topics
- Processing information:
Processed in 2009 by Sandra Hunt Hawrylchak.
- Public Servants
Military and Armed Conflict
Nuremberg War Crime Trials, Nuremberg, Germany, 1946-1949.
Vietnam War, 1961-1975--Study and teaching.
Comparative government--Study and teaching.
- Fried, John H. E.
New School for Social Research (New York, N.Y.)
City University of New York